Depression Anxiety Stress Scale

1  General Information

Instrument TitleDepression Anxiety Stress Scale

The Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS) is a 42-item self report instrument designed to measure the three related negative emotional states of three subscales including: 1) depression, 2) anxiety and 3) tension/stress.

2  History

Author(s):Lovibond, S.H. & Lovibond, P.F.
Year Created:1995

3  Cost


4  Classification


5  Instrument Details

How to access

The Depression Anxiety Stress Scale can be accessed the following link:

For general inquiries contact:

Prof Peter Lovibond
School of Psychology
University of New South Wales
Sydney NSW 2052
Phone: +61-2-9385 3830
Fax: +61-2-9385 1193

Sample Question(s)

Please read each statement and circle a number 0, 1, 2 or 3 which indicates how much the statement applied to you over the past week. There are no right or wrong answers. Do not spend too much time on any statement.

The rating scale is as follows:
0 Did not apply to me at all
1 Applied to me to some degree, or some of the time
2 Applied to me to a considerable degree, or a good part of time
3 Applied to me very much, or most of the time

1. I found myself getting upset by quite trivial things

Revision Year
Number of Items42
Mode of AdministrationEither
Reliability and Validity References
  1. Lovibond, S.H. & Lovibond, P.F. (1995).  Manual for the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales. (2nd. Ed.) Sydney: Psychology Foundation.  ISBN 7334-1423-0. Brown, T.A., Korotitsch, W., Chorpita, B.F. & Barlow, D.H. (1997).  Psychometric properties of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS) in clinical samples. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 35, 79-89.
  2. Antony, M.M., Bieling, P.J., Cox, B.J., Enns, M.W. & Swinson, R.P. (1998).  Psychometric properties of the 42-item and 21-item versions of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS) in clinical groups and a community sample. Psychological Assessment, 10, 176-181.
  3. Crawford, J.R. & Henry, J.D. (2003).  The Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS): Normative data and latent structure in a large non-clinical sample. British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 42, 111-131.
Example CAM Evaluation References
  1. Skaczkowski G, Hayman T, Strelan P, Miller J, Knott V. (2013)  Complementary medicine and recovery from cancer: the importance of post-traumatic growth. European Journal of Cancer Care (Engl). Jun 3.

Target Age GroupAdult and adolescent.
Target Population


Time to Administer

Not specified.

Time Period Assessed

Not specified.

Translations Available

This outcome measure has been translated into the following languages: Arabic, Bangla, Chinese, Dutch, Filipino, French, German, Greek, Hebrew, Hungarian, Icelandic, Indonesian, Italian, Japanese, Korean, Malaysian, Norwegian, Persian, Polish, Portuguese, Romanian, Russian, Serbian, Sinhala, Spanish, Taiwanese, Thai, Turkish, Urdu, Vietnamese.

For further information on obtaining translations contact:

6  Additional Information

Additional Comments

In addition to the basic 42-item questionnaire, a short version, the DASS21, is available with 7 items per scale. Note also that an earlier version of the DASS scales was referred to as the Self-Analysis Questionnaire (SAQ).

Depression Anxiety Stress Scale

Back to Top