The Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC) consists of 25-items that measure the ability to cope with stress and adversity. It was designed to quantify self-reports of resilience in the general population and clinical samples, and to measure response to pharmacological treatment in a clinical population. The items reflect several aspects of resilience that include a sense of personal competence, tolerance of negative affect, positive acceptance of change, trust in one's instincts, sense of social support, spiritual faith, and an action-oriented approach to problem solving.A shortened 10-item and 2-item version is also available.
Responses are rated on a 5-point scale to assess feelings over the past month: not at all true; rarely true; sometimes true; often true; and, true nearly all of the time.
Statements include: I am able to adapt to change; I have close and secure relationships; I take pride in my achievements; I work to attain my goals; and, I feel in control of my life.
Number of Items
Mode of Administration
Reliability and Validity References
Connor, K. M., & Davidson, J. R. T. (2003). Development of a new resilience scale: The Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC). Depression and Anxiety, 18(2), 76-82.
Campbell-Sills, L., Cohan, S. L., & Stein, M. B. (2006). Relationship of resilience to personality, coping, and psychiatric symptoms in young adults. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 44, 585-599.
Example CAM Evaluation References
Otto LM, Howerter A, Bell IR, Jackson N. (2010) Exploring measures of whole person wellness: integrative well-being and psychological flourishing. Explore (NY), Nov-Dec;6(6):364-70.
Target Age Group
General and psychiatric population
Time to Administer
Time Period Assessed
This measure has been translated into the following languages:
6 Additional Information
This scale was initially developed using adults but has recently been tested using young adults (see references).
Reference for shortened version by original authors â€“ this version consists of 2-items:
Vaishnavi, S., Connor, K., & Davidson, J. R. T. (2007). An abbreviated version of the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC), the CD-RISC2: Psychometric properties and applications in psychopharmacological trials. Psychiatry Research, 152(2-3), 293-297.
Reference for shortened version by other authors â€“ this version consists of 10-items, using a sample of young adults:
Campbell-Sills, L., & Stein, M. B. (2007). Psychometric analysis and refinement of the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC): Validation of a 10-item measure of resilience. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 20(6), 1019-1028.
Another reference that discusses the concept of resilience and use of this instrument in its measurement is:
Connor, K., Zhang, W. (2006). Resilience: Determinants, Measurement, and Treatment Responsiveness. CNS Spectr, 11(10): 5-12 (suppl 12)