Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale

1  General Information

Instrument TitleConnor-Davidson Resilience Scale

The Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC) consists of 25-items that measure the ability to cope with stress and adversity. It was designed to quantify self-reports of resilience in the general population and clinical samples, and to measure response to pharmacological treatment in a clinical population. The items reflect several aspects of resilience that include a sense of personal competence, tolerance of negative affect, positive acceptance of change, trust in one's instincts, sense of social support, spiritual faith, and an action-oriented approach to problem solving.A shortened 10-item and 2-item version is also available.

2  History

Author(s):Connor, K. M., & Davidson, J. R. T.
Year Created:2003

3  Cost

CostYes - dependent on type and extent of use

4  Classification


5  Instrument Details

How to access

For information on access to this scale, visit:

Sample Question(s)

Responses are rated on a 5-point scale to assess feelings over the past month: not at all true; rarely true; sometimes true; often true; and, true nearly all of the time. 

Statements include: I am able to adapt to change; I have close and secure relationships; I take pride in my achievements; I work to attain my goals; and, I feel in control of my life.

Revision Year


Number of Items25
Mode of Administrationself
Reliability and Validity References
  1. Connor, K. M., & Davidson, J. R. T. (2003). Development of a new resilience scale: The Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC). Depression and Anxiety, 18(2), 76-82.
  2. Campbell-Sills, L., Cohan, S. L., & Stein, M. B. (2006). Relationship of resilience to personality, coping, and psychiatric symptoms in young adults. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 44, 585-599.

Example CAM Evaluation References
  1. Otto LM, Howerter A, Bell IR, Jackson N. (2010) Exploring measures of whole person wellness: integrative well-being and psychological flourishing. Explore (NY), Nov-Dec;6(6):364-70.
Target Age Groupadult
Target Population

General and psychiatric population

Time to Administer

Not specified

Time Period Assessed

Past month

Translations Available

This measure has been translated into the following languages:


6  Additional Information

Additional Comments

This scale was initially developed using adults but has recently been tested using young adults (see references).

Reference for shortened version by original authors – this version consists of 2-items:

  1. Vaishnavi, S., Connor, K., & Davidson, J. R. T. (2007). An abbreviated version of the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC), the CD-RISC2: Psychometric properties and applications in psychopharmacological trials. Psychiatry Research, 152(2-3), 293-297.

Reference for shortened version by other authors – this version consists of 10-items, using a sample of young adults:

  1. Campbell-Sills, L., & Stein, M. B. (2007). Psychometric analysis and refinement of the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC): Validation of a 10-item measure of resilience. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 20(6), 1019-1028.

Another reference that discusses the concept of resilience and use of this instrument in its measurement is:

Connor, K., Zhang, W. (2006). Resilience: Determinants, Measurement, and Treatment Responsiveness. CNS Spectr, 11(10): 5-12 (suppl 12)

Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale

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