The Freiburg Mindfulness Inventory (FMI) is a 30-item scale that is designed to measure the concept of mindfulness, measured as either an outcome of an intervention, as a moderating variable or personality trait.
A 14-item short form version has also been developed, which is more suitable for use in generalized context where a Buddhist background of mindfulness is limited.
Rarely, Occasionally, Fairly often, Almost always.
Number of Items
long version: 30 items; short version: 14 items
Mode of Administration
Reliability and Validity References
Buchheld, N., Grossman, P., Walach, H. (2001). Measuring mindfulness in insight meditation (Vipassana) and meditation-based psychotherapy: The development of the Freiburg Mindfulness Inventory (FMI). Journal of Meditation and Meditation Research, 1, 11-34
Büssing A, Hedtstück A, Khalsa SB, Ostermann T, Heusser P. (2012) Development of Specific Aspects of Spirituality during a 6-Month Intensive Yoga Practice. Evidence Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 2012:981523.
Leigh, J., Bowen, S., Marlatt, G.A. (2005). Spirituality, mindfulness and substance abuse. Addictive Behaviors, 30(7), 1335-1341.
Bussing A, Edelhauser F, Weisskircher A, Fouladbakhsh JM, Heusser P. (2011) Inner Correspondence and Peacefulness with Practices among Participants in Eurythmy Therapy and Yoga: A Validation Study. Evidence Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: 329023.
Target Age Group
Time to Administer
Time Period Assessed
This outcome measure has been translated into the following language(s):
Buchheld, N. and Walach, H. (2002). Mindfulness in Vipassana meditation and psychotherapy: Development of the Freiburg Mindfulness Questionnaire. [German]. Zeitschrift fur Klinische Psychologie, Psychiatrie und Psychotherapie, 50(2), 153-172.
6 Additional Information
Rapgay L, Bystrisky A. (2009) Classical mindfulness: an introduction to its theory and practice for clinical application. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, Aug;1172:148-62.