The Sense of Coherence (SOC) Scale is a 29-item, multi-dimensional scale that assesses how people view life and, in stressful situations identify, use and reuse their general resistance resources to maintain and develop their health. The SOC scale consists of at least three dimensions: comprehensibility (4 items), manageability (5 itmes) and meaningfulness (4 items). The original version of the SOC scale also appears as a 13-item shor-form version.
The Sense of Coherence Scale can be accessed through the appendix to the following book:
Antonovsky A. (1987). Unraveling the Mystery of Health. Jossey-Bass, San Francisco.
3. Think of the people with whom you come into contact daily, aside from the ones to whom you feel closest. How well do you know most of them?
(7-point Likert scale: 1 = You feel that they're strangers; 7 = You know them very well)
8. Until now your life has had...
(7-point Likert scale: 1 = No clear goals or purpose; 7 = Very clear goals and purpose)
Number of Items
29 (long form); 13 (short form)
Mode of Administration
Reliability and Validity References
Antonovsky, A. (1993). The structure and properties of the Sense of Coherence Scale. Social Science and Medicine, 36(6), 725-733.
Eriksson M, Lindstrom B. (2005). Validity of Antonovsky's Sense of Coherence Scale: A systematic review. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, 59, 460-466.
Frenz AW, CArey MP, Jorgensen RS. (1993). Psychometric evaluation of Antonovsky's Sense of Coherence Scale. Psychological Assessment, 5(2), 145-153.
Bowman, B. J. (1996). Cross-cultural validation of Antonovskyâ€™s Sense of Coherence Scale. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 52(5), 547-549.
Feldt, T., Lintula, H., Suominen, S., Koskenvuo, M., Vahtera, J., & Kivimaki, M. (2007). Structural validity and temporal stability of the 13-item sense of coherence scale: Prospective evidence from the population-based HeSSup study. Quality of Life Research, 16(3), 483-493.
Flannery, R. B. Jr., Perry, J. C., Penk, W. E., & Flannery, G. J. (1994). Validating Antonovskyâ€™s Sense of Coherence Scale. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 50(4), 575-577.
Honkinen, P. L., Suominen, S., Rautava, P., Hakanen, J., & Kalimo, R. (2006). The adult sense of coherence scale is applicable to 12-year-old schoolchildren-an additional tool in health promotion. Acta Paediatrica, 95(8), 952-955.
Korotkov, D. L. (1993). An assessment of the (short-form) Sense of Coherence personality measure: Issues of validity and well-being. Personality and Individual Differences, 14(4), 575-583.
Pallant, J. F., & Lae, L. (2002). Sense of coherence, well-being, coping and personality factors: Future evaluation of the Sense of Coherence Scale. Personality and Individual Differences, 33(1), 39-48.
Example CAM Evaluation References
Andersson K, TÃ¶rnkvist L, WÃ¤ndell P. (2009) Tactile massage within the primary health care setting. Complementary Therapy in Clinical Practice, Aug;15(3):158-60.
Bell, I. R., Lewis II, D. A., Lewis, S. E., Brooks, A. J., Schwartz, G. E., & Baldwin, C. M. (2004). Strength of vital force in classical homeopathy: Bio-psycho-social-spiritual correlates within a complex systems context. Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, 10(1), 123-131.
Target Age Group
Time to Administer
Time Period Assessed
Past, present and perceptions of what the future will be like.
French: Gana, K., & Garnier, S. (2001). Latent structure of the Sense of Coherence Scale in a French sample. Personality and Individual Differences, 31(7), 1079-1090.
Many revised and shortened versions of the SOC scale exist by unoriginal authors. A recent example includes:
Flensborg-Madsen, T., Ventegodt, S., & Merrick, J. (2006). Sense of coherence and health. The construction of an amendment to Antonovskyâ€™s sense of coherence scale (SOC II). The Scientific World Journal, 6, 2133-2139